Musical Code-Switching

When rock and roll first became popular, some performers who had already established themselves in other genres had to walk a fine line between capitalizing on the fad and alienating existing fans. Several records by women from this era show that one technique to strike this balance was to perform songs that juxtaposed rock and roll with another genre. Often, the verse will be in one style and the chorus in the other. These songs typically also have an element of humor—we get the sense that the performer is making fun of one genre or the other—but there may be some ambiguity in the end as to the performer’s “real” style.

Three songs, all popular between 1955 and 1956, demonstrate how this works.

One example is Wanda Jackson‘s recording of “I Gotta Know.” In her autobiography, Jackson writes:

“I told [songwriter Thelma Blackmon] about Elvis encouraging me to try my hand at rockabilly music, but I confessed that I didn’t really know how to get into it. I had a dilemma because I wanted to venture into a new realm, but I also didn’t want to lose my country fan base. Unbeknownst to me, Thelma took it upon herself to go off and write a song that blended the two styles together. When she brought me “I Gotta Know,” I said “This is it!” 1

Here’s Jackson discussing and performing the song live in a 2018 performance (audio courtesy of the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame):

 

Successful performance of the song relies on the arrangement and performance style creating an obvious contrast between the two sections. Here, the choruses—which in Jackson’s 1956 recording feature fiddles and pedal steel—resemble those of a country ballad, and Jackson plays up the twang in her voice. The verses, on the other hand, become faster and more percussion-heavy, and Jackson turns on her signature rockabilly growl. The record became one of her more popular singles that year.

 

Another example of this kind of musical switching occurs in Teresa Brewer’s recording of “Sweet Old Fashioned Girl,” also from 1956, which became a top 10 hit in Billboard. Brewer started her career as a pop singer in the late 1940s. She was a versatile vocalist, and she did participate in the practice of covering R&B songs for major labels, but neither she nor her record label ever went all in on marketing her music as rock and roll. “Sweet Old Fashioned Girl,” however, plays with the idea that she could have.

Accompanied by orchestral strings, Brewer asks “wouldn’t anyone like to meet a sweet old fashioned girl?” and then scat-sings a silly tune. Moments later, the strings abruptly cut out in favor of a jump-blues inspired band, and Brewer sings: “Who’s a frantic little bopper in some sloppy socks / Just a crazy rock and roller, little Goldilocks.”

 

Kay Starr’s recording of “Rock and Roll Waltz” also fits this model. The idea for the song started with Alan Freed:

Songwriters Shorty Allen and Roy Alfred, always turning over new song ideas, were tuned into Alan Freed’s Rock ’n Roll Show one day, when the famous jockey happened to remark in connection with a record he was about to play, “The next thing we’ll have is rock and roll in waltz time.” That was all the fellows needed. They wrote the tune, the first rock ’n roller in that tempo in history, and based the lyrics on some of the romantic thoughts expressed in the many wires and letters received by Freed.2

Much of the record is a lilting waltz, with orchestral strings and in a clear 3/4 time. Over this, Starr tells the story of a young teen who happens upon her parents trying to dance to a rock and roll record. But twice within the song, when Starr pronounces the phrase “one, two, and three rock / one, two, and three roll,” she changes her vocal timbre to a gruffer sound, and the accompaniment correspondingly shifts to a brass band.

 

The song shot to #1 on the pop charts, where it remained for several weeks.

Rock and roll was still controversial at the time these three records were made, so these songs and their arrangements may have allowed some women singers—particularly white, middle-class women—to dabble in rock and roll in a non-threatening way.

Playlist: Vocal Harmony & Girl Groups

Some of rock and roll’s best known girl groups—the Supremes, Martha Reeves and the Vandellas, the Ronnettes—were active in the 1960s, but the girl group phenomenon has roots in the 1950s. It was during the 50s that the first prominent vocal groups made up of teenage girls began to show up on the popularity charts, both pop and R&B.

This playlist highlights some of the vocal groups that were beginning to proliferate during the early rock and roll era. These groups were drawing from a variety of influences, including the “sister” ensembles of the swing era (like the Andrews Sisters) and from the male doo-wop groups that were also popular in the fifties (one of the first girl groups, the Queens, was founded by Shirley Gunter, whose brother Cornell was a member of the Coasters).

Much of the early girl group music features the tight vocal harmonies and nonsense syllables that came from the sister groups or doo-wop, but these “girl group” songs also created a new platform for the concerns of teenage girls. Girl group historian and musicologist Jacqueline Warwick writes that the popularity of these groups “marked the first instance in U.S. history of a music centered around adolescent girls and their experiences coming of age, in a society were teenagers were emerging as a newly signfiicant group.” 1

All of the groups on this playlist were part of rock and roll culture in the fifties—they performed on package shows and were heard on rock and roll radio programs, for example—with the possible exception of the Chordettes, who are performing a hit song written by a teen girl songwriter, Beverly Ross. While a number of girl group hits were written and produced by men, the Brill Building songwriting teams who increasingly worked with girl groups in the 1960s also included songwriters who were young women themselves, including Carole King, Ellie Greenwich, and Cynthia Weil. Ross was among the first.

See also: The Chantels, Shirley Gunter, the Poni-Tails, the Rhythmettes, and Beverly Ross.

Giant Sampler Playlist!

This Spotify playlist features songs by many of the artists featured in Women in Rock & Roll’s First Wave whose music is currently available on streaming services.

Women in Rock & Answer Songs

Answer songs have long been one of Tin Pan Alley’s favorite ways to squeak a little extra capital out of someone else’s hit record.

These records take characters or plot points from a popular hit, and rework them in some way— relying on audiences’ knowledge of the prior song to fully “get” the meaning. While many answer songs have been relegated to obscurity, others—like Etta James’s “The Wallflower,” one of many responses to Hank Ballard’s “Work with me Annie”—became hits themselves.

B. Lee Cooper and Frank W. Hoffman the 1946–1975 the “golden era” of answer songs, and the trend was particularly strong in R&B in the 1950s and in country & western  and pop in the 1960s. 1 Skeeter Davis, for example, released a whole string of popular answer songs beginning in 1960. 2 Rock and roll also saw its share of answer songs, particularly as it dominated the charts in the mid- to late-1950s.

Most answer songs also include musical elements from the original, ranging from a short audible cue—a host of answer songs to the Big Bopper’s “Chantilly Lace,” for example, begin with a ringing phone—to wholesale theft of the melody and harmony. These similarities frequently led to lawsuits. “Don’t Want to Be Your Good Luck Charm” by Jo of Judy & Jo (Capitol 4745, 1962), for example, sparked a lawsuit by Gladys Music, which owned the publication rights to “Good Luck Charm” made famous by Elvis Presley. 3

Answer songs often represented dialogue between men and women, frequently showing different perspectives of a love or breakup story—often reinforcing stereotypical gendered roles but occasionally bucking them. When women rock and rollers cut answers songs, they were more often than not answering songs written and performed by men.

Here are some of the common tactics that appear in women’s answer songs.

 

Noun/Pronoun Swap

In this variation on covering a song, any gendered nouns and pronouns in the lyrics are switched, usually to keep romantic narratives heterosexual. Sometimes, however, this also changes the scenario or meaning laid out in the original—as Aretha Franklin’s cover of Otis Redding’s “Respect” famously did later in the 1960s.

For example, several women including Meg Myles (1956), Dinah Shore (1958), and Ann-Margret (1962) re-recorded “Thirteen Women” as “Thirteen Men.” The song is perhaps best-known as the B-side of Bill Haley and His Comets’ “Rock around the Clock,” but it was originally written and recorded by black musician Dickey Thompson. In the song, the protagonist fantasizes about a post-nuclear scenario in which they are the only member of their gender left, while thirteen remain of the opposite. The “female” version of the song doesn’t change any of the other lyrics, however, creating a scenario that could be interpreted as even more risqué, since women are thought of as the primary drivers of monogamy.

The backing track of Meg Myles’s version, cut for Liberty Records and released in 1956, features dissonant horns and an anxious, rapid bongo drum beat that seem to signal that this world would not exactly be a paradise.

Meg Myles, “Thirteen Men”

 

Novelty / Humor

While in a sense many answer records are novelty records, some didn’t even try to be serious. In 1960, for example, Jeri Lynne Fraser took the already silly “Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini” and told us what happened to the girl in the bikini in her answer, “Poor Begonia (Caught Pneumonia).” Begonia may have gotten sick, but she also gains a new fiancé in the lifeguard who comes to her rescue.

The song has a distinct melody and structure from “Itsy Bitsy,” but it has a similarly light-hearted arrangement. It also satirizes the original for a moment in the pre-chorus by including semi-spoken count off “2-4-6-8, gosh she’s in an awful state!” that resembles the earlier song.

Jeri Lynne Fraser, “Poor Begonia (Caught Pneumonia):

Subversion or Social Commentary

Some women used the answer song as a medium to object to the behaviors of the protagonists in men’s songs. Kitty Wells’s signature hit “It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels” (1952), written by Jay Miller as a response to Hank Thompson’s recording of “Wild Side of Life” (1951),  set a gold standard for the women’s point of view answer song. (There are a number of examples of these “women’s answer songs” written by men.)

Dion and the Belmonts’ “Runaround Sue” sparked a couple of answer songs from the perspective of “Sue.” Linda Laurie cut one for Rust in 1962, “Stay-at-Home Sue.” The backing vocals are credited to the Del-Satins, a white doo-wop group very similar to the Belmonts. “Stay at Home Sue” is a very close copy of “Runaround Sue”—Laurie even invokes Dion’s vocal style—but the lyrics accuse Dion of cheating and implore: “If you’re in love with a guy who’s not true / don’t sit around and be a stay-at-home Sue!”

Clip: Linda Laurie, “Stay-at-Home Sue”:

 

Relocated Male Fantasy

Some women’s answer songs reinforced the point of view in the man’s song, rather than countering it or admonishing him in some way. Dodie Stevens cut a response Elvis Presley’s “Are You Lonesome Tonight” in 1960 called “Yes, I’m Lonesome Tonight.” The song has a very similar arrangement to Presley’s, with softly crooning background vocalists and a delicate acoustic guitar strum. The melody is also cribbed from the original, and Stevens affirms each of the sentiments from Presley’s record: “Yes I’m Lonesome tonight and I miss you tonight / I’m so sorry we drifted apart And my memory strays to those wonderful days / when you kissed me and called me sweetheart.”

Clip: Dodie Stevens, “Yes, I’m Lonesome Tonight”

 

Listen to more answer songs: